PART 7 THE SPIRITUALITY PUZZLE

PART 7 The Spirituality Puzzle
What causes someone to become a child of God and have assurance of eternal life?

Chapter 9
Salvation By Repentance And Belief?
Water Baptism - If It Forgive Sins, Then It Is Necessary For Salvation, Well Does It?

Finding out what it does not provide will help us find out what its purpose is.

The answer as to what the purpose of water baptism is according to the salvation message of Repentance and Belief is multi-faced. So, the best way for me to determine as to what its purpose is, is to try and determine what it does not provide. Hopefully, whatever it does not provide will help us figure out what is does provide. I know this sounds like a strange answer, but this is how I intend to approach this. Where will I begin? By asking a question that will help us in trying to formulize one thing that water baptism might or might not provide. And by the way bear with me as this will involve much information and minutia. 


Some believe that one of the reasons why water baptism is a necessary part in salvation is because it forgives sins. Obviously, if it does it would most certainly be something that must take place in order to complete the salvation process. According to this salvation message, does water baptism forgive sins? Let’s present scripture and find out. We’ll begin in the book of Acts.

Be Baptized … For The Remission Of Sins
Suggested Reading: Acts 2:1-47
38 Then Peter said unto them, Repent, and be baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ for the remission of sins, and ye shall receive the gift of the Holy Ghost.

36 Therefore let all the house of Israel know assuredly, that God hath made that same Jesus, whom ye have crucified, both Lord and Christ.

37 Now when they heard this, they were pricked in their heart, and said unto Peter and to the rest of the apostles, Men and brethren, what shall we do?

These verses were declared by the apostle Peter on the Day of Pentecost, when Jews came from all over the region to celebrate the 50th day of the feast of Pentecost. Peter and the other disciples received the indwelling Spirit on this day and spoke to them in their native tongues concerning Jesus Christ, whom they crucified and slain, and who is both Lord (the supreme Governor of all things and all persons78) and Christ (the Messiah; God’s chosen one). Their response was, what shall we do?


Peter’s response was that they needed to repent and be baptized in water in the name of Jesus Christ, and their sins would be forgiven. This appears to be straightforward repent, be baptized in water, and your sins will be forgiven. Sometimes what appears to be obvious really isn’t. Why, because in order to better understand whether this is true or not, we need to put on a different pair of glasses?
You might be thinking, oh this must be about the Koine Greek, the language in which most of the New Testament manuscripts were written as mentioned earlier in this study. Yes, this is what I am referring to. In this case, as in the one we looked at earlier this involve an Aorist Participle. If you don’t remember what this is about let’s refresh your memory. 


A participle is known as a verbal noun and denotes the purpose as to why someone is doing something or why something is being done. What is meant by Aorist tense? The Aorist tense tells us about what kind of action is being expressed by the verb. In this case, the Aorist denotes action as occurring at a point in time. In a verse, if we are able to identify these two words together i.e. as what is known an Aorist Participle (a verbal adjective) what this tells is that the action of this verb precedes the action of the main verb or verbs in the verse of scripture. This will bring about an awareness of something happening before something else that we weren’t able to tell from the English translation. 


Something else to watch out for when analyzing a verse are prepositions. They can have different meanings. And one other thing to be aware of is the relation between the subject of a sentence and the related verb or clause. If the subject is singular, then the verb or clause that identifies with it should be singular. This will help us determine what goes with what or what causes what.
I know that this is a lot to consider, but sometimes we have to dig deeper to find an answer.
Well, with this said we need to take another look at Acts 2:38.

Then Peter said unto them, Repent, and be baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ for the remission of sins, and ye shall receive the gift of the Holy Ghost.

Peter told the unbelieving Jews on the day of Pentecost to Repent, and be baptized. The word “Repent” mean a confession of sins; a hearty purpose to turn from them79. Repent and what? Some say, and be baptized. These are the words that follow in the verse, however, what words should have followed wasn’t needed to be restated here because it was already declared in verse 36, which was to believe in the one who is both Lord and Christ (Messiah). So, it is understood that what was being said was, Repent and believe in the one who is both Lord and Christ.


And then he said, be baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ for the remission of sins. The words “be baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ for the remission of sins” means be baptized (in water) every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ for the remission (forgiveness) of sins. 


Where do we begin to address this wording? Well for one thing if we were to take another look at the word “Repent” we can determine that in the Greek it is described as a verb that is in the plural. This is important because in the clause “for the remission of your sins”, the preposition “your” is in the plural. You might say, this word doesn’t appear in the English translation. That’s true, but it is contained in the Greek text called the Textus Receptus that draws from a group of ancient manuscripts80 from which we get the English translation in the King James version of the Bible. And along with this, the words “be baptized” is a verb in the Greek that is in the singular. Therefore, the clause for the remission of your sins goes with the verb Repent. Therefore, the wording of this verse can be rewritten as, Repent and believe in the one who is both Lord and Christ (Messiah) for the remission of your sins, and be baptized… 


Just to add one more thought or clarification to this. The preposition “for” in the clause for the remission of your sins, which in the Greek is transliterated as the word eis can also mean ‘on the basis of’. So, again we could rewrite this verse as, Repent and believe in the one who is both Lord and Christ for (on the basis of) the remission of your sins. In other words, repent and believe in Christ on the basis of your sins that were already forgiven at the cross and be baptized in water. As we can see in this instance water baptism does not forgive sins.

Are there some other verses that will give us more insight as to whether water baptism forgives sins? Stay in the book of Acts, and go to chapter 22.

Be Baptized, And Wash Away Thy Sins
Acts 22:1, 12-13, 15-16; Acts 9:17-18
1 Men, brethren, and fathers, hear ye my defense which I make now unto you.
12 And one Ananias, a devout man according to the law, having a good report of all the Jews which dwelt there,
13 Came unto me, and stood, and said unto me, Brother Saul, receive thy sight. And the same hour I looked up upon him.
15 For thou shalt be his witness unto all men of what thou hast seen and heard.
16 And now why tarriest thou? arise, and be baptized, and wash away thy sins, calling on the name of the Lord.

The apostle Paul finally made it to his utmost destination, Jerusalem. After presenting himself before the apostle James and the elders of the church that was located there, he was told by them that many of the Jewish Christians were upset because they were under the impression that his teachings prohibited them from observing their Jewish customs. 


A plan was put into action that would take place at the temple of Jerusalem which would allow the Jewish Christians to see that this was not the case. This did not go as planned, as Paul was apprehended by an unruly mob, who attempted to kill him. Fortunately for him, he was rescued by Roman soldiers, whose purpose was to bring him into a nearby castle where he would be interrogated as to what he had done to provoke the crowd. 


As Paul was being led up the stairs of the castle, he turned back to face the mob telling them about his Jewish religious background and how his conversion to Christianity came about. He told them about a certain disciple of Jesus named Ananias, whom was sent to lay hands on him so that he would receive his eye-sight that was temporarily lost during his encounter with Christ on the road to Damascus.

Acts 9:17-18 And Ananias went his way, and entered into the house; and putting his hands on him said, Brother Saul, the Lord, even Jesus, that appeared unto thee in the way as thou camest, hath sent me, that thou mightest receive thy sight, and be filled with the Holy Ghost. And immediately there fell from his eyes as it had been scales: and he received sight forthwith, and arose, and was baptized.

Acts 22:16 And now why tarriest thou? arise, and be baptized, and wash away thy sins, calling on the name of the Lord.

Not only did he receive his sight back, but in the original account of this incident (Acts 9:17-18) he also received the filling of the Spirit. After which, in the recounting of this story (Acts 22:16), we are told that he was baptized in water having his sins washed away (forgiven), calling on the name of the Lord. At face value, we could say that after Paul received his sight and was filled with the Spirit, he was baptized in water having his sins forgiven. Well, here again we have to look these verses with the Koine Greek glasses on. 


Let’s begin by taking a look at the words “filled with the Holy Ghost”. These words indicate that Saul was operating in God’s presence (divine love, divine joy, divine peace). And in order for this to happen he must have already received the indwelling Spirit, which meant he had to have at a point in time repented and believed in Christ. After which we are told, he was baptized in water. 


Now, let’s take another look at Acts 22:16 which says, arise, and be baptized, and wash away thy sins, calling on the name of the Lord. This verse appears to be saying, be baptized in water for the forgiveness of sins, while you are calling on the name of the Lord. However, the words “calling on” is in the form of, you guessed it, an Aorist Participle (a verbal adjective), which we learned from our discussion earlier whose action precedes the main verb. However, because there are two main verbs “be baptized” and “wash away” this Aorist Participle could precede only one or both of them. 


If the action preceded both main verbs the verse would appear as such: calling on the name of the Lord, be baptized, and wash away thy sins. With this rendering, the translation could suggest the water baptism is the basis for the forgiveness of sins. 


If it preceded only one of the main verbs it would appear as such: be baptized, calling on the name of the Lord, and wash away thy sins.
We have two opposing views. One which says that water baptism forgives sins and the other which proclaims that an unbeliever can call on the name of the Lord and have their sins washed away, which takes place when they receive the indwelling Spirit. At which time, they are identified with Christ in his death, burial, and resurrection. Being actually identified with Christ in his death signifies their death to the old life in sin, no longer being under its guilt, power, nature, and consequences. This identification is what is referred to as the forgiveness of sins, which is different from the forgiveness (putting away) of the sins whose debt was paid for by Christ on the cross.
Let’s take a look at the rest of the verses which follow, and what they have to convey should provide the answer as to which view is the correct one.

Let’s proceed onward to Ephesians chapter 1.

In Whom We Have Redemption Through His Blood, The Forgiveness Of Sins
Suggested Reading: Ephesians 1:3-11
6 To the praise of the glory of his grace, wherein he hath made us accepted in the beloved.
7 In whom we have redemption through his blood, the forgiveness of sins, according to the riches of his grace;

The apostle Paul is writing to the Christians at Ephesus telling them the many things God the Father has done for them. In particular, let’s focus on what is made known in verses 6-7 which says that He has:
~ By his grace, which he freely bestowed on them, made them accepted (saved) in the beloved (in the sphere of the Lord Jesus, His Person and His work on the Cross81).

~ In whom (In Christ) provided for them redemption (to let go free; deliverance effected) through his blood (on receiving the price; the price paid to divine justice for our sin; the ransom money; through the death of Christ) from the retributive wrath of a holy God and the merited penalty of sin82, and the forgiveness of sins (separation from all of the consequences of our transgressions; not to remember any longer a person’s sins; to carry away our sins so they might never again be seen83).

It was through Christ’s blood, his death on the cross, the price paid to divine justice for our sins, that the Ephesian believers were told they have redemption (were set free) from the retributive wrath of a holy God and the merited penalty of sin84. And along with this that their sins were forgiven (separation from all of the consequences of our transgressions; not to remember any longer a person’s sins). This forgiveness refers to the sins whose debt was paid on the cross and is different from the forgiveness provided at salvation by means of the baptism of the Spirit.

Are there any other verses that will help us determine whether water baptism forgives sins?

Let’s take a look at more verses from the book of Acts.

When the Times of Refreshing Shall Come:
Suggested Reading: Acts 3:1-4:31
Acts 3:1-2 Now Peter and John went up together into the temple at the hour of prayer, being the ninth hour. And a certain man lame from his mother's womb was carried, whom they laid daily at the gate of the temple which is called Beautiful, to ask alms of them that entered into the temple;

A man, who was born crippled at birth, was placed at one of the 9 gates of the temple at Jerusalem to beg for money. He was healed by the Holy Spirit, through the intermediary of the apostle Peter. After the healing took place, he entered into the temple with the apostles Peter and John. The people, who knew of this man’s physical disability, had seen the miraculous healing and gathered together in the porch that is called Solomon’s.
Peter seizing the opportunity, spoke to them and said that it was through faith in the name of Jesus Christ that this man was made to walk.

Acts 3:19 Repent ye therefore, and be converted, that your sins may be blotted out, when the times of refreshing shall come from the presence of the Lord;

Then he said to them that they needed to repent (to have a change of mind about themselves, their sin, and Jesus Christ85) and be converted (turn to God through this Christ … and believing on his name86) so that their sins would be blotted out (to cause you to have no guilt87). If they were to respond to Peter’s declaration, the purpose of such would be they would be able to experience the blessings of God such as peace, love, joy, and communion with himself88 that would come from his presence, which would signify the fruit or spiritual qualities of the Holy Spirit. 


These verses convey to us that when an unbeliever repents and believes in Christ their sins would be blotted out (there would be no more guilt in respect to them). The reality of such would take place when they received the baptism (indwelling) of the Holy Spirit, when at such time they would be identified with Christ in his death, burial and resurrection. Romans 6:3-4

And the last group of scriptures we will look at are also from the book of Acts.

Whosoever Believeth In Him Shall Receive Remission Of Sins.
Suggested Reading: Acts 10:1-48
43 To him give all the prophets witness, that through his name whosoever believeth in him shall receive remission of sins.

The apostle Peter, being accompanied with fellow Jewish Christians, is in the house of a Gentile named Cornelius and his kinsmen proclaiming the salvation message of Christ. He told them that whosoever believes in the name of Christ will receive the remission of sins. As he was speaking, the Holy Spirit fell (indwelt) those who believed the word. After which, they were baptized in water.
So, to repeat what Peter said with clarification, here it is. Through his name (by virtue of what He is and what He hath done89) that whosoever believes in him shall receive remission (forgiveness; not just to the guilt of sin merely, but also to its power, nature, and consequences90) of sins. When we think of the forgiveness of sins, we might ask why was this mentioned if Christ already forgave the sins of the whole world on the cross? This refers to the baptism of the Holy Spirit identifying us at salvation with Christ’s death, at which time he died to sin, and so did we. Romans 6:3-4

Based on the study we have just undertaken, what would be the answer to the following four questions?

Does water baptism forgive sins?
I believe the answer is no.

What forgives sins?
The forgiveness of sins for all mankind (both believers and unbelievers) has taken place on the cross, when Christ died and shed his blood. When an unbeliever repents and believes, they receive the baptism (indwelling of the Holy Spirit). It is at this time that the believer is actually identified with Christ in his death, burial, and resurrection. Being identified with Christ in his death signifies our death to the old life in sin, no longer being under its guilt, power, nature, and consequences. This forgiveness is an identification with Christ and is different from the forgiveness provided at the cross.

Is water baptism necessary in the salvation process?

Based on what we have just learned, no.

If water baptism does not forgive sins, then what is its purpose?
Remember, what I said earlier, in order to determine what the purpose of water baptism is, we need to determine what it does not provide. This leads us to something else that many churches believe that water baptism is essential in providing. Do you have any idea as to what this could be? Let’s find out in the next chapter.


Chapter 10

Salvation By Repentance And Belief?

Does The Holy Spirit Come Into A Person’s Life Following Water Baptism?

This is another question that needs to be answered in respect to the salvation message of Repentance and Belief. Is the indwelling Spirit received following repentance and belief or does the person also need to be baptized in water in order for this to take place? For many churches, the answer to this question is essential to their belief that water baptism is implemented for a particular reason and therefore has a mandatory place in the salvation process. What do the scriptures have to say about this, let’s find out?

Please go to the book of Acts.

The Holy Ghost Fell On All Them Which Heard The Word
Suggested Reading: Acts 10:1-48
43 To him give all the prophets witness, that through his name whosoever believeth in him shall receive remission of sins.
44 While Peter yet spake these words, the Holy Ghost fell on all them which heard the word.
45 And they of the circumcision which believed were astonished, as many as came with Peter, because that on the Gentiles also was poured out the gift of the Holy Ghost.
46 For they heard them speak with tongues, and magnify God. Then answered Peter,
47 Can any man forbid water, that these should not be baptized, which have received the Holy Ghost as well as we?
48 And he commanded them to be baptized in the name of the Lord. Then prayed they him to tarry certain days.

We have already looked at these verses earlier. To summarize, the apostle Peter is at the house of a Gentile named Cornelius, who is accompanied by his kinsman, and is preaching Christ to them. As he is speaking, we are told that the Holy Spirit fell on all them which heard the word. The word “fell’ means to take possession of. After which, they spoke in tongues, magnified God, and were baptized in water. 


In this instance, the preaching of the gospel and the belief of Cornelius and his kinsman concerning it was the basis for the receiving of the indwelling Spirit. They were all baptized in water following repentance, belief, and the receiving of the Spirit. It is clear in these passages that water baptism is not the basis for the receiving of the Holy Spirit.

Let’s keep on taking a look at scriptures in this regard until we can formulate a conclusion.

What Doth Hinder Me To Be Baptized?
Suggested Reading: Acts 8:1-40
5 Then Philip went down to the city of Samaria, and preached Christ unto them.
12 But when they believed Philip preaching the things concerning the kingdom of God, and the name of Jesus Christ, they were baptized, both men and women.
14 Now when the apostles which were at Jerusalem heard that Samaria had received the word of God, they sent unto them Peter and John:
15 Who, when they were come down, prayed for them, that they might receive the Holy Ghost:
16 (For as yet he was fallen upon none of them: only they were baptized in the name of the Lord Jesus.)
17 Then laid they their hands on them, and they received the Holy Ghost.

Philip, one of the seven deacons of the Jerusalem church, who was also called “the evangelist”, has left Jerusalem because of intense persecution following the death of one of the other deacons named Stephen. He initially went to Samaria and preached the salvation message of Repentance and Belief to them. They received the word and were baptized in water, but as yet he was not fallen upon none (did not come into any) of them i.e. none of them received the indwelling Spirit. How it was known that the indwelling Spirit was not received was not disclosed.

Nonetheless, two apostles were sent from Jerusalem to lay hands on each person who had previously believed the word, and subsequently they received the indwelling Spirit. In this instance, the Holy Spirit was received after water baptism and the laying on of hands. This was contrary to what happened at the house of Cornelius. So, are there two different approaches as to when the indwelling Spirit is received? What could be an explanation for the Holy Spirit not being received by the Samaritans following repentance and belief?


Here are a few explanations. One explanation is from the Bible Knowledge Commentary. It was necessary for the apostles at Jerusalem to commission Peter and John to Samaria for several reasons. … (1) Peter and John's prayer (for bestowing of the Holy Spirit) and their laying on of hands (resulting in the coming of the Spirit) confirmed Philip's ministry among the Samaritans. This authenticated this new work to the Jerusalem apostles. (2) Perhaps the most important aspect of God withholding the Spirit till apostolic representatives came from the Jerusalem church was to prevent schism. Because of the natural propensity of division between Jews and Samaritans it was essential for Peter and John to welcome the Samaritan believers officially into the church91. Another explanation is given to us from Jamieson, Fausset, and Brown Commentary. This being the first accession and baptism of a large body of disciples, through the instrumentality of one who was not himself an a apostle, it was fitting that the newborn church of this city should be taught the proper position and authority of those divinely-appointed founders of the Church; and this visit to them of a deputation from the mother-church at Jerusalem, consisting of the two most prominent members of the apostolic body, was just the thing to produce that effect92.
Can we conclude that water baptism and the laying on of hands caused the Samaritans to receive the indwelling Spirit? Some churches would say yes, while others would say that the receiving of the indwelling Spirit in this manner was suitable for the situation at hand and is not to be taken as the protocol to be implemented on a consistent basis.

Interesting information that we have found out so far, don’t you think? Let’s take another look at the verses from Acts 22 and Acts 9, which were analyzed in the previous chapter.

And Be Filled With The Spirit
Acts 22:1, 12-13, 15-16; Acts 9:17-18
1 Men, brethren, and fathers, hear ye my defense which I make now unto you.
12 And one Ananias, a devout man according to the law, having a good report of all the Jews which dwelt there,
13 Came unto me, and stood, and said unto me, Brother Saul, receive thy sight. And the same hour I looked up upon him.
15 For thou shalt be his witness unto all men of what thou hast seen and heard.
16 And now why tarriest thou? arise, and be baptized, and wash away thy sins, calling on the name of the Lord.

Acts 9:17-18 And Ananias went his way, and entered into the house; and putting his hands on him said, Brother Saul, the Lord, even Jesus, that appeared unto thee in the way as thou camest, hath sent me, that thou mightest receive thy sight, and be filled with the Holy Ghost. And immediately there fell from his eyes as it had been scales: and he received sight forthwith, and arose, and was baptized.

From what we learned earlier from Acts 9:17-18 was that when Ananias laid hands on Saul two things happened, he received his eye sight back and second, he was filled with the Spirit. The words “filled with the Holy Ghost” indicate that Saul was operating in God’s presence (divine love, divine joy, divine peace), and in order for this to happen he must have already received the indwelling Spirit, which meant he had to have at a point in time repented and believed in Christ. After which, it was said that he was baptized in water.
Furthermore, we learned from our study of Acts 22:16 which said, arise, and be baptized, and wash away thy sins, calling on the name of the Lord that based on the words “calling on” which are according to the Greek language in the form of an Aorist Participle that this verse could be written in one of two ways. One way is, calling on the name of the Lord, be baptized, and wash away thy sins. The other way is, be baptized, calling on the name of the Lord, and wash away thy sins, which signified that that they should be baptized in water after having already believed in the Lord on the basis that their sins were washed away. The latter indicating that water baptism had taken place after Saul received the indwelling Spirit.

We have one more section of scriptures to look at and these are found in Acts 2.

They Were All Filled With The Holy Ghost
Acts 1:1-2, 4-5; Acts 2:1-47
1 The former treatise have I made, O Theophilus, of all that Jesus began both to do and teach,
2 Until the day in which he was taken up, after that he through the Holy Ghost had given commandments unto the apostles whom he had chosen: 4 And, being assembled together with them, commanded them that they should not depart from Jerusalem, but wait for the promise of the Father, which, saith he, ye have heard of me.
5 For John truly baptized with water; but ye shall be baptized with the Holy Ghost not many days hence.

One hundred and twenty disciples are in an upper room in Jerusalem waiting for the promise of the Holy Spirit as foretold to them by Jesus before he ascended into heaven.

Acts 2:4 And they were all filled with the Holy Ghost, and began to speak with other tongues, as the Spirit gave them utterance.

Then, on a particular day, the day of Pentecost, the day on which the Jews came from all over the world to celebrate the fiftieth day following seven complete weeks of the completion of the wheat harvest which was called the feast of Pentecost, the Holy Spirit came and indwelt the disciples. Scripture tells us that they were all filled with the Holy Ghost. The filling means they were experiencing the presence (divine love, divine joy, divine peace) of the Holy Spirit, which in order for this to happen He had to have already come into each of their lives and indwell, which one could assume happened simultaneously as the filling. What we could also say is that each of the disciples received the indwelling Spirit before they were baptized in water. In connection with this, let’s take another look at Acts 2:38.

Then Peter said unto them, Repent, and be baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ for the remission of sins, and ye shall receive the gift of the Holy Ghost.

According to the Koine Greek, we rewrote this verse as, Repent and believe in the one who is both Lord and Christ (Messiah) for (on the basis of) the remission of your sins, and be baptized, and ye shall receive the gift of the Holy Ghost. Is this telling us that the receiving of the indwelling Spirit follows water baptism in the salvation process even though the one who proclaimed the gospel message, the apostle Peter, received the indwelling Spirit before he was baptized in water?

The only other way that I can think of to try and determine whether a person must be baptized in water in order to receive the indwelling Spirit is to look at verses from the Epistles that pertain to such. What I mean by this is, are there verses which indicate that the Spirit is received following repentance and belief? The following are verses that relate to such.

~ Ephesians 1:12-13 That we should be to the praise of his glory, who first trusted in Christ. In whom ye also trusted, after that ye heard the word of truth, the gospel of your salvation: in whom also after that ye believed, ye were sealed with that holy Spirit of promise,
~ Galatians 3:2 This only would I learn of you, Received ye the Spirit by the works of the law, or by the hearing of faith?
~ Galatians 3:14 That the blessing of Abraham might come on the Gentiles through Jesus Christ; that we might receive the promise of the Spirit through faith.

It’s time to draw a conclusion as to whether the salvation process is repentance, belief, and water baptism, whereby water baptism is the basis for the receiving of the Holy Spirit. Based on the study of scripture, we could conclude that water baptism is not the basis for the receiving of the indwelling Spirit. Therefore, an unbeliever is saved by repentance and belief. With that said, then what is the purpose of water baptism? We’ll find out in the next chapter.

Endnotes
78Adam Clarke.
79Barnes. 80What is the Critical Text? ˂https://www.gotquestions.org/critical-text.html> 81Weust. 82Thayer.
83The Bible Exposition Commentary/New Testament 1989, 12 December 2018 ˂http://www.biblesoft.com>.
84Thayer.
85The Bible Exposition Commentary/New Testament.
86Adam Clarke.
87UBS New Testament.
88Adam Clarke.
89Adam Clarke.
90Adam Clarke.
91Bible Knowledge Commentary/New Testament.
92Jamieson, Faucet, and Brown.

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Synopsis
Does water baptism forgive sins?
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