PART 2 THE TEN COMMANDMENTS
CHAPTER 3 The Age of Israel The Exodus of the Jews from Egypt to the birth of Christ: Moses lead the Jews out from their captivity in Egypt. They arrived at Mount Sinai, where he received the Ten Commandments along with instructions concerning the building of a tabernacle, which was a portable tent like structure, that was to be used in the worship of their God (Yahweh) throughout the wilderness wanderings to the land that God promised them to inhabit, the Promised Land of Canaan. Joshua followed Moses as the next leader of the Jews. Under his leadership, they would cross over the Jordan River and enter the land of Canaan thus becoming a nation of people. The spiritual ceremonies by which they would worship Yahweh along with the precise ethics they were to follow are: the testimonies (the laws directing the commemoration of certain events (e.g. Seventh year Sabbath rest; the 50th year, the year of Jubilee; the ordinance of the Passover; the feast of Unleavened Bread; etc.) and the civil statutes (e.g. laws for military service, diet, soil conservation, etc.), which were previously delineated by Moses to them during their wilderness wanderings, and are now instituted at this time. After Joshua died, the Jews were ruled by various leaders called judges for a period of about 400 years. God would raise up these judges to rule over Israel, when after a period of apostatizing from Him and being in subjection to a foreign nation, they would cry out to him for help in delivering them from their enemy. Following the period of the Judges, the Jews decided they wanted a king to rule over them. So, God allowed them to have their desire. Their first three kings, Saul, David, and Solomon ruled over the entire nation or 12 tribes of Israel. After the reign of Solomon, the nation split into two kingdoms. The Northern Kingdom of Israel was comprised of 10 tribes, and the Southern Kingdom of Judah was comprised of 2 tribes. Because of apostasy, the Northern Kingdom was invaded by the Assyrians and led away into captivity. Years later, the Southern Kingdom was also invaded and led away into captivity by the Babylonians. When the Babylonian captivity ended, the Jews began to return to their homeland. Remember, A non-dispensationalist will look at scriptures, in which obeying the Ten Commandments were mentioned, and will choose those verses that support the perpetuation of this practice. A dispensationalist will look at scriptures, in which obeying the Ten Commandments were mentioned, and confine the conditions of this practice to the dispensation in which these verses were found. There is a lot of mention about obeying the Ten Commandments in the sections which follow. Keep in mind this question, is the giving of the Ten Commandments for only the Jews to observe or should they also be observed by the New Testament believer? When Moses was in the Mount did he receive from God just the Ten Commandments? 2. I will give thee tables of stone, and a law, and commandments: Suggested Reading: Exodus 19:1-19; 20:1-26; 24:1-18; 32:1-35; 34:1-4 And the Lord said unto Moses, Come up to me into the mount, and be there: and I will give thee tables of stone, and a law, and commandments which I have written; that thou mayest teach them. (Exodus 24:12) In the 3rd month of their journeying toward the Promised Land of Canaan, having left their captivity in Egypt, the children of Israel are now in the desert of Sinai. At this time, Moses was called by God to go up to Mount Sinai. When he arrived at the proper place, God told him that He would come down in a thick cloud and speak to him before the people. Therefore, the people needed to be warned in order to make sure that when this took place, they were a certain distance away from the Mount. And Moses came and told the people all the words of the Lord, and all the judgments: and all the people answered with one voice, and said, All the words which the Lord hath said will we do. And he took the book of the covenant, and read in the audience of the people: and they said, All that the Lord hath said will we do, and be obedient. (Exodus 24:3, 7) After Moses declared God’s instructions to them, he went back up the Mount, where God gave him the Ten Commandments, which were written on two tablets of stone, along with judgments. Moses came back down the mountain again and wrote the commands and judgments on either a papyrus scroll or a large piece of leather, which was rendered as the book of the covenant or the book of God’s agreement with the people. He then proceeded to read aloud what was written down to the people. Then went up Moses, and Aaron, Nadab, and Abihu, and seventy of the elders of Israel: And Moses went into the midst of the cloud, and gat him up into the mount: and Moses was in the mount forty days and forty nights. (Exodus 24:9, 18) Moses was instructed to go back up to the Mount. However, at this time he was asked to bring with him Aaron, Nadab, Abihu, and seventy of the elders of Israel. When they reached a certain location only Moses was allowed to proceed further up the Mount, where at a certain place he abode for 40 days and 40 nights having received further instructions from God. And when the people saw that Moses delayed to come down out of the mount, the people gathered themselves together unto Aaron, and said unto him, Up, make us gods, which shall go before us; for as for this Moses, the man that brought us up out of the land of Egypt, we wot not what is become of him. And Aaron said unto them, Break off the golden earrings, which are in the ears of your wives, of your sons, and of your daughters, and bring them unto me. And he received them at their hand, and fashioned it with a graving tool, after he had made it a molten calf: and they said, These be thy gods, O Israel, which brought thee up out of the land of Egypt. And Moses turned, and went down from the mount, and the two tables of the testimony were in his hand: the tables were written on both their sides; on the one side and on the other were they written. And it came to pass, as soon as he came nigh unto the camp, that he saw the calf, and the dancing: and Moses' anger waxed hot, and he cast the tables out of his hands, and brake them beneath the mount. (Exodus 32:1-2, 4, 15, 19) In the meantime, Aaron and the others proceeded back down from the Mount to join the people. As they waited for Moses return, the people decided to make a calf of gold from their jewelry, which after it was made, they decided to worship it. When Moses time with God was up, he descended the Mount. When he reached the place where the people were residing, what he found to his surprise was them dancing before the golden calf. In anger, he threw down both tablets to the ground causing them to break. And the Lord said unto Moses, Hew thee two tables of stone like unto the first: and I will write upon these tables the words that were in the first tables, which thou brakest. (Exodus 34:1) In response to this, the Lord disciplined the people causing many of them to die. Moses seeing what was taking place interceded for them, and thus the punishment was stayed. God instructed Moses to carve out two new tablets of stone and return to the Mount, on which He would record the Ten Commandments. Another book in the bible called Nehemiah states that when Moses was in the Mount, God gave him not only commandments, but also right judgments, true laws, and good statutes. (Nehemiah 9:13) What is the difference in the meaning of the words right judgments, true laws, good statutes, and commandments? Were the commandments which David instructed his son Solomon to keep restricted to the Decalogue? 3. To keep his statutes, and his commandments, and his judgments, and his testimonies: 1 Kings 2:1-4 Now the days of David drew nigh that he should die; and he charged Solomon his son, saying, I go the way of all the earth: be thou strong therefore, and shew thyself a man; And keep the charge of the Lord thy God, to walk in his ways, to keep his statutes, and his commandments, and his judgments, and his testimonies, as it is written in the law of Moses, that thou mayest prosper in all that thou doest, and whithersoever thou turnest thyself: That the Lord may continue his word which he spake concerning me, saying, If thy children take heed to their way, to walk before me in truth with all their heart and with all their soul, there shall not fail thee (said he) a man on the throne of Israel. King David was near death, so he decided to instruct his son Solomon, who was now king, to keep the Lord’s statutes, commandments, judgments, and testimonies. What is the difference in meaning of each of these words? The meaning of each of these words are as follows: ~ Statutes: (the positive ordinances, e.g. the Tabernacle, Holy Days, etc.). ~ Commandments (the moral precepts, which include the 10 commandments (e.g. honor thy father and thy mother; thou shalt not kill, etc.) and more than 100 other commandments (thou shalt not take a wife unto my son of the daughters of the Canaanites, among whom I dwell; thou shalt not suffer a witch to live, etc.). ~ Judgments (the laws belonging to civil government; e.g. dietary, marriage, military, conservation, etc. along with the related consequences). ~ Testimonies (the laws directing the commemoration of certain events; e.g. the seventh year, Sabbath rest; the 50th year, the year of Jubilee; the feast of Unleavened Bread; etc.). Furthermore, David told him that if he would walk in God’s ways, then He would make sure that when he passed on (died), there would be a king on the throne of Israel. How are the Ten Commandments related to the tabernacle? 4. Tabernacle, wherein was the table: Suggested reading: Exodus 25:1-26; Hebrews 9:1-5 Then verily the first covenant had also ordinances of divine service, and a worldly sanctuary. For there was a tabernacle made; the first, wherein was the candlestick, and the table, and the shewbread; which is called the sanctuary. And after the second veil, the tabernacle which is called the Holiest of all; Which had the golden censer, and the ark of the covenant overlaid round about with gold, wherein was the golden pot that had manna, and Aaron's rod that budded, and the tables of the covenant; And over it the cherubims of glory shadowing the mercyseat; of which we cannot now speak particularly. (Hebrews 9:1-5) As we have learned already, the word “statutes” refers to the positive ordinances, e.g. the Tabernacle, Holy Days, etc. What is the tabernacle? The tabernacle was a portable tent like structure, a sanctuary, where the Jews could approach God through sacrificial offerings. This structure accompanied them throughout their 40 year wanderings in the wilderness. It contained three holy places. The outermost area was the court, an outdoor space (150 by 75 ft ) containing the altar of burnt offering and the laver enclosed within curtains. The tabernacle proper consisted of two chambers, the first being called the Holy Place (which contained the golden candlestick, the table of showbread, and the altar of incense) and the second being called the inner sanctuary or Holy of Holies, which contained only the Ark of the Covenant. And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying, And let them make me a sanctuary; that I may dwell among them. According to all that I shew thee, after the pattern of the tabernacle, and the pattern of all the instruments thereof, even so shall ye make it. And thou shalt make staves of shittim wood, and overlay them with gold. And thou shalt put the staves into the rings by the sides of the ark, that the ark may be borne with them. And thou shalt make a mercy seat of pure gold: two cubits and a half shall be the length thereof, and a cubit and a half the breadth thereof. And thou shalt make two cherubims of gold, of beaten work shalt thou make them, in the two ends of the mercy seat. And thou shalt put the mercy seat above upon the ark; and in the ark thou shalt put the testimony that I shall give thee. And there I will meet with thee, and I will commune with thee from above the mercy seat, from between the two cherubims which are upon the ark of the testimony, of all things which I will give thee in commandment unto the children of Israel. (Exodus 25:1, 8-9, 13-14, 17-18, 21-22) What was the Ark of the Covenant? The Ark of the Covenant was a wooden box, which had a cover that was overlaid with gold, and upon it were two cherubim (angels), who stood on opposite sides facing each other. Apparently, it was the only piece of furniture in the Holy of Holies. On various occasions it was removed from the Holy of Holies by the priests, who were able to transport it by means of carrying rods. The ark was the symbol of God's very presence on earth. It marked the place where the Lord dwelled as well as the place where the Lord communicated with Moses. Surprisingly the Ark contained three things. Do you know what they were? Inside the Ark of the Covenant was: ~ A golden pot that contained manna, which was to remind the Jews of the bread that God gave them throughout their 40 year wandering in the wilderness. ~ Aaron’s rod that budded, which proved that Aaron and his sons were chosen for the priesthood, and not a leader from another tribe. ~ The last item, believe it or not, was called the tables of the covenant, the stone tablets upon which were written the Ten Commandments. Summary ●God asked Moses to confer with him at Mount Sinai, where he received the Ten Commandments, which were written on two tablets of stone, along with additional commandments, judgments, statutes, and testimonies. Exodus 19:1-19; 20:1-26; 24:1-18; 32:1-35; 34:1-4 ●David instructed his son Solomon, who was now the king of Israel, that if he kept the Lord’s statutes (the positive ordinances, e.g. the Tabernacle, Holy Days, etc.); the commandments (the moral precepts, which include the 10 commandments (e.g. honor thy father and thy mother; thou shalt not kill; etc.) and more than 100 additional commandments (thou shalt not take a wife unto my son of the daughters of the Canaanites among whom I dwell; thou shalt not suffer a witch to live, etc.); the judgments (the laws belonging to civil government, e.g. dietary, marriage, military, conservation, etc. along with the related consequences); and the testimonies (the laws directing the commemoration of certain events, (e.g. the seventh year Sabbath rest; the 50th year, the year of Jubilee; the feast of Unleavened Bread; etc.), then the Lord would make sure that there would be a king on the throne of Israel. 1 Kings 2:1-4 ● Inside of the Ark of the Covenant was contained: a golden pot that contained manna, which was to remind the Jews of the bread that God gave them throughout their 40 year wandering in the wilderness; Aaron’s rod that budded, which proved that Aaron and his sons were chosen for the priesthood; and the tables of the covenant, the stone tablets upon which were written the Ten Commandments. Exodus 25:1-26; Hebrews 9:1-5 The dispensationalist would state that Moses was given by God at Mount Sinai the Ten Commandments on tablets of stone along with additional commandments, statutes, judgments, and testimonies. The Ten Commandments were to be obeyed during this time only by the Jews. Exodus 19:1-19; 20:1-26; 24:1-18; 32:1-35: 34:1-4 The non-dispensationalist would begin by saying that the mention of the Ten Commandments first occurred on Mount Sinai, when God placed them on two stone tablets and gave them to Moses. These were so important that even David instructed his son Solomon, who was king at that time, to keep them. 1 Kings 2:1-4 They would also point out that the admonition given to Abraham and his sons to keep the Lord’s commandments was prophetic of the Jews receiving the Ten Commandments and subsequently being obligated to keep them. Based on the importance of keeping God’s Ten Commandments, Christians should also keep them. Interesting isn’t it that there are two distinct perspectives concerning whether a believer is obligated to keep the Ten Commandments. One perspective says that there are periods of time in which God deals differently with the human race on the basis of there being different covenants. The other perspective perpetuates the practice of obeying the Ten Commandments by using verses that support it, and infer from them that it should be continued throughout human history. Which perspective is the correct one? Weekly Messages: http://bit.ly/1N9SHdX Website: http://bit.ly/1RQnYJ8 Twitter: http://bit.ly/1mYHQ14 Facebook Author Page: http://on.fb.me/1Q0MJ3w Facebook: http://on.fb.me/1WbFXKJ

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Synopsis
Were the Old Testament saints commanded to obey the Ten Commandments during the Age of Israel?
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