Write my Paper | Challenges Faced By Women In Armed Conflict And Implication On Policy

Introduction

Several parts of the world have continued to experience armed conflicts.Though armed conflict affects the whole society, its effect on womenis complex. Women and girls make up a huge section of the reported85% civilian victims of present day conflicts. Since time inmemorial, women and girls have often been targeted in wartime forviolence, especially sexual violence, forced prostitution and forcedmarriage among others (BestAssignment Writing Service}.Moreover, the nature of warfare itself has dramatically changed dueto the development of increasingly sophisticated weapons technology.As a result of the risks the women and girls are exposed to, thereneed to be development of policies and programs to protect womenduring armed conflicts. This paper will focus on challenges faced bywomen and girls during armed conflicts and what policies and programsneed to be developed to protect women during armed conflicts.

Challengesfaced by women and girls during armed conflict

Forcedpregnancy

Forcedpregnancy has been described as the unlawful confinement of awoman/girls to forcibly make them pregnant. A case in point, duringthe wars in former Yugoslavia girls and women got confined, raped andheld captive until the chances of abortion ceased to be viable optionfor the victim. 28 Girls got abducted by rebel forces inNorthern Uganda and who were subjected to forced pregnancy, and thosewho attempted to prevent pregnancy, were either beaten or killed(Wiki gender, 2011).

Violenceagainst Women

Inconflict-ridden places and in post-conflict communities, violenceagainst women and girls has wider social ramifications. Severalstudies have documented that, during wars, violence against women isusually applied on a huge scale. Women are systematically raped,intimidated, sexually abused and forced into unwanted pregnancies(Wikigender, 2011).The goal behind these brutal actions is: to degrade, humiliate, andshame the other national group in general; to impinge on the healthand wellbeing of women; to undermine women‘s capacity to sustaintheir families and societies. Many of the sexually abused women/girlssuffer emotional breakdowns, more so those from rural regions wheremoral codes are strict. Their husbands, families and societiesusually reject them.

Sexualslavery

Sexualslavery surrounds most, if not all, types of enforced prostitution.Sexual slavery is used as an adjective to define a type of slavery,not to denote a different crime. Girls are usually abducted forsexual and other motives by armed groups and forces.

PsychologicalAttack

Sexualviolence entail both physical and psychological attacks aimed at aperson’s sexual traits like forcing a person to strip naked inpublic, genital mutilation. A case in point, during the genocidein Rwanda, girls/women were sexually mutilated after gettingsubjected to rape, including gang-rape. In Sierra Leone, girls whoattempted to run away from a rebel captivity were carved with therebel name RUF on their breasts (Wiki gender, 2011).

Implicationsfor policy and program development

Owingto the fact that women are the most affected by armed conflict andare rarely included in peace missions, several attempts have beenmade to ensure the inclusion of women in peace initiatives. In 2011,America unveiled a program called NationalAction Plan (NAP) on Women, Peace, and Security(USAID, 2016).Its aims were focused on the engagement and protection of women andgirls as agents of peace and advance gender equality and women’sempowerment and also ensure respect for human rights, and address theneed of vulnerable groups in crisis and in conflict environments. Inthe year 2000, the United Nations Security Council adopted theResolution 1325 and which was landmark international legal frameworkwhich was intended to not only meant to inordinate impact of war onwomen, but also the vital role women should and do play in conflictmanagement, conflict resolution and sustainable peace (USIP, 2010).The last program is the BeijingDeclaration and Platform for Action,and which was adopted in 1995 by over 180 UN Member States. Thisresolution made women and armed conflict among the 12 vital areas ofconcern. It stated certainly that peace is inevitably tied toequality between men and women and to development. The BeijingPlatform for Action issues several vital measures to promote peaceand equality by reducing military expenditure and regulating thesupply of armaments (UN, 2017).

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