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Differencebetween implicit biases and stereotypes

ImplicitBias

Alsoreferred to as implicit social cognition, implicit bias involves theattitudes or stereotypes which affects ones understanding, actions,and decisions in an unconscious way.  These biases, thatencompass both favorable and unfavorable evaluation, are activatedunknowingly and is devoid of one’s awareness or intentional control(Bonilla, 2010).  Inhabiting deep in the subconscious, thesebiases vary from known biases which one might select to hide for thepurpose of social or political correctness.  Instead, implicitbiases cannot be accessed through introspection.

Theimplicit association that individuals harbor within theirsubconscious causes one to have sentiments and attitudes regardingother people based on traits like race, ethnicity, gender, andappearance.  These association grow over the course of alifetime starting at an early age via exposure to direct and indirectmessages.  Besides early life experiences, the media and newsprogramming are mostly-cited origins of implicit association.

Stereotypes

Definedas widely held but fixed and oversimplified image or idea that one orthe society might be having of a particular type of person or thing.Stereotypes are ubiquitous. Some of the things that stereotypes coverinclude racial groups (Asians -good at maths), political groups(Republicans-very wealthy), genders (“Women-not good at math’s),demographic groups and situations. In practice, several scholars havepointed out that stereotypes concentrate on negative, unfavorablecharacteristic, although certain authorities have also pointed outthat stereotypes also contain aspects of positive socialovergeneralizations as well (Bonilla, 2010).

Fromthe above, it can be seen that there is a unique distinction betweenimplicitbiases and stereotypes. Implicit biases is carried out unknowinglywhile stereotypes is carried out knowingly by one/group to anotherperson/group. The last difference is that stereotypes is affected byadditional of new information while implicit biases tends not to beaffected by additional of new information. The similarities betweenthe two is that they both contain some aspect of labelling aparticular person based on their age, gender, ethnic group orreligion.

Differencebetween explicit stereotyping and attitudes

Explicitstereotyping

Hasbeen defined as the type of stereotyping which one carried against aperson or group at a conscious level. In most occasions, these typeof stereotyping and their expression comes about as a result of aperceived threats (Kirsner,2013). When people feel threatened, they are likely to developgroup boundaries to distinguish themselves from other groups. A casein point relates to several researches which have been done and whichhave shown that white people tend to express anti-Muslim prejudicewhen they view national security to be at risk and express morenegative attitudes towards Asian Americans when they view them as athreat to their economy (Bonilla, 2010).

Explicitattitudes

Areattitudes that are at the conscious level, are deliberately formed,easy to control and are easy to self-report. Explicit attitudes areknown to the subject and can be observed by another person, reportingand observation are the two most crucial techniques used when itcomes to determination of explicit attitudes (Kirsner,2013 ).

Thedeference similarities between explicit stereotyping and explicitattitudes is that both are done knowingly by one group/person toanother person/group. The difference between the two is that explicitstereotyping involves the use of action while explicit attitudesinvolves feelings/or sentiments.

Howracial disparity in sentencing affects the judicial system

Thehistory of racial disparity in the criminal justice system in theU.S. have been longstanding. The racial dynamics in sentencing havechanged over time and reflect a move from explicit racism to moresurreptitious manifestations and outcomes (ACLU, 2014). Severalresearches have pointed out that there is a huge racial disparitiesin sentencing decisions in America. Sentences which are imposed uponBlack males within the federal system are approximately 20% longerwhen compared to those that are imposed on white males convicted forthe same crimes.

Theracial disparities tends to rise with the severity of the sentenceimposed. The degree of disproportionate representation of Blacksamong prisoners that are serving a life sentence without thepossibility of parole (LWOP) is greater when compared to otherparole-eligible prisoners serving life sentence (ACLU,2014).Racial disparities when it comes to sentencing are consistent with ahuge pattern of racial disparities which plagues America’s criminaljustice system from arrest to incarceration. There are stark racialdisparities when it comes to police stops, frisks, and searches.

Thedisparity when it comes to sentencing is affecting the judicialsystems since it is receiving a lot of criticism from the public andother NGO’s for not ensuring that justice is done. The judicialsystem has been accused of presiding over and advocating forsegregation. As a result of this, it has made a section of the publicto loose trust and confidence in the judicial system. This has inturn led to tarnishing of the image of the judicial system since itdoes not believe in ensuring that justice prevails and which was whatthey swore to uphold and protect. The other way in which racialdisparity is affecting the judicial system relates to lack ofcooperation between the justice system and the community due to lackof trust in the justice system.

Thearticle revolved around racial discrimination within the justicesystem. The article focused on how racial segregation withinAmerica’s justice has manifested itself to an extent that theblacks are heavily punished based on their color and based on the law(ACLU, 2014).The article provided cases in point of how the blacks receive harshpenalties for similar crimes committed by the whites. I short, thearticle focuses on the human rights violations related to racialdisparities more so egregious within the United States.

Mypersonal thoughts are that justice should be served equally to allthe accused regardless of their race and ethnic background. Thoseworking within the justice took an oath office and promised to upholdjustice. However, this has not been the case since the officialsworking within the justice have a gone against the oath they took(ACLU, 2014).

Forthe justice system to work effectively, it needs to collaborate withthe public in terms of the public providing vital information to thejustice system of the where about of criminals or any plannedcriminal activities. Without this collaboration, the justice systemwould not work effectively.

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