How to set up for a tattoo
Explanatory essay

How to tattoo is a highly protected trade secret. In fact, most tattoo shops don't even train artist.  I am going to explain how a electric tattoo machine and other tattoo equipment works and sanitation procedures.  I am only going to explain How to prepare the equipment and set up for a tattoo.  I will not discus any technics.
After every tattoo, needles are destroyed and the tubes are put in to an ultrasonic cleaner.   In an ultrasonic cleaner, the object to be cleaned is placed in a chamber containing a suitable ultrasound conducting fluid (an aqueous or organic solvent, depending on the application).  In aqueous cleaners, the chemical added is a surfactant which breaks down the surface tension of the water base.  An ultrasound generating transducer built into the chamber produces ultrasonic waves in the fluid by changing size in concert with an electrical signal oscillating at ultrasonic frequency. This creates compression waves in the liquid of the tank which "tear" the liquid apart, leaving behind many millions of microscopic ‘voids’ or ‘partial vacuum bubbles’ (cavitation).  These bubbles collapse with enormous energy; with pressures up to 50,000 lbs per square inch.  However, they are so small that they do no more than clean and remove surface dirt and contaminants.
After the tubes are then taken out of the ultrasonic cleaner, the loss ink is scrubbed off and then placed in side of sterile pouches.  The pouches are then placed into a autoclave.  An autoclave is a device to sterilize equipment and supplies by subjecting them to high pressure steam at 121° C or more.  After the tubes have been in the autoclave for a 1/2 hour at 121° C (twice the manufacturers recommended time) , they are taken out so they can dry.  The needles on the other hand can be purchased pre-sterilized. It is cheaper to perches the needles un-steril, but it not cheaper after you have to bye your own sterile pouches.
Tubes are made up of three pieces; the tip, the tube and the grip.  There are two types of tips, liners and shader. Liners have a diamond tip.  Shader tubes have a square tip and some times round depending on the grouping of the needles.  The needle groping that is used in a liner tube is called the liner needle, witch is actually a round grouping of 3,5,7, or 9 needles that are soldered together.  The shader needle is a group of needles that are soldered together side by side(Flat shader) or stacked in to rows(Magnum shader).  Round shaders are in a round grouping except they are spaced a little further apart then a liner grouping.  A need grouping is soldered onto the end of a needle bare, the other end is bent into loop. 
When a customer brings in a design, the fist thing to do is to determine weather its doable.  If someone draws something that they want, the most popular reason for turning it down is because its to small or if they find something on the internet and shrinks it down when printing it out. Customers dont understand that the tattoo needle is not as thin as a line that could be made by a photocopier.  Placement of the tattoo is some thing to considered as well, some areas of the body dos not hold ink as well as other areas.  For example, you would not want to do a detailed tattoo on the elbow.  The elbow and some other areas like palms of hand, bottom bottoms of feet and the arhilles tenon dos not heal well.  You could do the tattoo and a few days later you may barely be able to see the tattoo.  The only thing left could be spots here and there and a maybe a little color. Making sure the customer under stands this can help prevent having to touch up a tattoo multiple times.
After approving the design you will need to make a line drawing.  The line drawing need to draw so a stencil could be made.  Stencils are made with thermal copy paper and a thermal copier. The line drawing is placed inside a groping of papers that has a semi transparent top sheet (of witch the line work will be coped onto the the bottom) a plastic middle sheet (that has purple thermal sensitive ink on the top side) and a yellow paper bottom sheet that the line work is placed on top of.  Set of paper ar then placed into a plastic carrier sheet.  The carrier sheet is then ran threw the thermal copier. The thermal copier only prints what is in black photo copy ink, so if you draw something in pencil or pen it will need to be photocopied first. It is important that the thermal papers are completely in side the carrier sheet.  If any thing hangs out of the carrier sheet,  it will print solid purple instead of just the purple line work. 
When setting up for a tattoo you must first wait till the customer is in the room, so that they can see you remove the tubes and needles from their sterile packaging.  The needles goes into the the tubes.  The tube then goes into the vice of the tattoo machine.  The loop on the end of the needle bar goes on to the armature bar, that has a rubber nipple on it so that the bar fits securely with out any play in it.  The depth of the needle is then set by adjusting the tube in and out of the Vice wail you hold the armature bar in the "in" position(is called the in position because thats the position that its in when the needle is in the skin), the farthest forward that it can go. You want to adjust the tube so that the most the needle can stick out of the tube is the deepest that the needle should go.  The average depth of a liner needle is the thickness of a dime. The shader is the thickness of a nickel.
The armature bar is connected to a spring. the spring has just enough tension in it to hold the armature bar back away from the coils against the contact post. The contact spring is attached to the armature bar and reduces vibration . When the armature bar is in the out position the contact spring rests against the contact post.  When the contact post and the contact spring touches and the foot switch of a power supply is steeped on, it completes a circuit.  The current flows from the power supply to the negative lead of the clip cord to one end of the tattoo machine. This is where two coils are connected in series to a parallel circuit with a capacitor. Where the parallel circuit comes back to together the current then goes to the contact post and then to contact spring. The current then goes down the back spring to the positive led of the clip cord.  When the circuit is complete , the coils become magnetized and pulls the armature bar toward them ( in to the "in" position) witch in turns  disconnects the circuit causing the armature bar to go back to the out position, witch then complete the circuit and magnetizes the coils again. this causes the armature bar to vibrate back and forth repeatedly until the foot pedal is disengaged.
Tattoo machines are usually assembled to be used as a liner or as a shader.  Liner machines are built to cycle (the out position to the in position and then back to the out position) faster so that the lines wont look like a dotted line.  Shaders have larger needle groupings so they require a machine with a more powerful thrust so that the friction from having so many needles dont prevent the needles from going all the way in.  The most obvious differences between the two are the size of the coils.  The larger the coil the more powerful the thrust will be.  
Ones all the steps to setting up are completed you would be ready to tattoo safely and efficiently.

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Raymondddiluzio
School Papers
English
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